ЧОРНОМОРСЬКИЙ БОТАНIЧНИЙ ЖУРНАЛ • ЧЕРНОМОРСКИЙ БОТАНИЧЕСКИЙ ЖУРНАЛ • CHORNOMORSKI BOTANICAL JOURNAL

Aghayeva P., Garakhani P., Huseynova A., Ali-Zade V.

Wild ornamental plants of the family Asteraceae from the northeastern part of Azerbaijan

Abstract

Aghayeva P., Garakhani P., Huseynova A., Ali-Zade V. (2018). Wild ornamental plants of the family Asteraceae from the northeastern part of Azerbaijan. Chornomors’k. bot. z., 14 (3): 204–212. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.143/1

 

The article deals with wild species of ornamental herbs belonging to the family Asteraceae collected in Quba and Qusar districts of Azerbaijan during 2012–2017. In total, more than 120 specimens were collected and identified based on the main diagnostic morphologic characters. Altogether 49 species belonging to 28 genera and 11 tribes were registered, considering the latest taxonomic and nomenclatural changes. New localities of Cyanus cheiranthifolius and Leontodon danubialis were found in Quba district (the Great Caucasus). The relict species Callicephalus nitens and the Caucasus endemic species Tanacetum leptophyllum were also found in the studied region. The life forms and morphological types, diversity patterns of plants depending on altitude and soil humidity were reflected. Perennial plants, as compared to annuals, are dominant in the districts. Erigeron acris and Lactuca serriola may grow as both annual and/or biennials, while Carduus nutans is mainly biennial. Senecio vernalis may grow as an annual, biennial or perennial plant, depending on its habitats and local conditions. Morphological features, such as root systems, branching patterns, leaf outlines and flowers arrangement, are very variable and depend on the growing environment. Numbers of species occur both in forests and grasslands. Some of them grow along mountain slopes and also occur in meadows. Species variation and a consistent trend along the elevational gradient was observed starting from the low mountain zone. Abundance of species decreased in higher elevations. Results suggest that recent climate warming interacted in changes of habitats of some species. Species distribution patterns along the elevation gradients are affected by mountain range peculiarities, expositions of slopes, soil types, soil sliding processes, and climate warming. Numerous species have been recorded in more than one altitude zone. The number ofornamentalwild herbs belonging to Asteraceae growing in these districts can be successfully used in horticulture in parks and gardens.


Zlobin Yu.A. 

An algorithm for assessing the vitality of plant individuals and the vitality structure of phytopopulations

Abstract

Zlobin Yu.A. (2018). An algorithm for assessing the vitality of plant individuals and the vitality structure of phytopopulations. Chornomors’k. bot. z., 14 (3): 213–226. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.143/2

 

Vitality analysis is often used as a tool for assessing the vitality state of individuals and plant populations. Using the example of the Allіaria petiolata populations and a typical model example, three stages of the vitality analysis are described in detail. At the first stage, a group of attribute characterizing the vital state of the individuals of the plant species under study is established. To assess the vitality of individuals, and then the populations as a whole, three (the standard procedure for vitality analysis) or more attribute are used. At the second stage, the vitality of each of the individuals included in the sample of the required volume is estimated, in accordance with strict mathematical algorithms - the values of the signs that are initially expressed in absolute values are transferred into units of one, the vitality of the individuals is determined. The viability of each individuals lies in the amplitude from 0 to 1,0 and the higher it is, the higher the vital state of this individual. In the basic algorithm of vitality analysis, the individuals in the population are divided into three classes by its vitality "a", "b" and "c". For this purpose, the range of values of the vitality of individuals that lie in the amplitude from 0 to 1 is divided into three equal zones: more than 0,66 - the highest class of vitality – class "a", the vitality of the individual from 0,33 to 0,66 – class "b " - intermediate and individuals whose vitality is less than 0,33, class "c" – individuals of the lower class of vitality. In accordance with the values of the vitality of individuals (Qindividual), they are assigned one or another class of vitality. At the third stage, an integral assessment of the vitality of populations is given. Depending on the ratio in the population of individuals of classes “a” and “b”, the population refers to one of three vitality types: prosperous, equilibrium or depressive. Unlike the vitality of individuals, the population's vitality lies in the amplitude of Q values from 0 to 0,5. This interval is divided into three equal parts: from 0 to 0,167, from 0,167 to 0,333 and from 0,333 to 0,500. The first of these intervals (Q is less than 0,167) corresponds to depressive populations, the second from 0,167 to 0,333 is the equilibrium one and the third (Q is greater than 0.333) is prosperous. Separate consideration is given to the possibility of modifying a typical algorithm for assessing the vitality of individuals and populations for plants of various life strategies, which indicates the flexibility of the methodology for assessing the vitality of individuals and populations.


Zhilyaev G.G.

Vitalitative differentiation as a prerequisite for the polyalternativeness of development in natural populations Homogyne alpina (Asteraceae) of Chernogora (Carpathians)

Abstract

Zhilyaev G.G. (2018). Vitalitative differentiation as a prerequisite for the polyalternativeness of development in natural populations Homogyne alpina (Asteraceae) of Chernogora (Carpathians). Chornomors’k. bot. z., 14 (3): 227–239. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.143/3

 

The state, demographic dynamics, ontogenesis and the duration of its stages have been studied in the populations of the Homogyne alpina of Chernogory (the Carpathians). The article is devoted to new aspects and interpretation of the phenomenon of polyvariance in the development of populations of herbaceous perennials. The results are based on long-term stationary research and monitoring at permanent test sites of the Institute of Ecology of the Carpathians. It is shown that the principles of development of populations of H. alpina are formed under the influence of dominants of plant communities. The polyvariance of the ontogenesis of populations is interpreted as a result of adaptive changes in their vital structure. The article summarizes typical variants of ontogenesis of the H.a alpina. It is concluded that the pattern of population development is the result of ratios and abundance among passive and active individuals. The role of generative reproduction in the sustainability of H. alpina populations has been substantiated. Data are presented on the duration of ontogeny in the phytocenoses of the Carpathians depending on the vital structure of the population. It has been established that it is differentiated by vital groups (high, medium and low). As the vital structure deteriorates, the speed of ontogenesis slows down. And this is also accompanied by changes in the overall strategy for the development of populations in general. The author of the article believes that the general auto-correction of populations of herbaceous plants is carried out precisely on such principles. It has been shown that the sustainability of H. alpina populations is determined by their ability to change life cycles in accordance with environmental conditions. The belt of spruce forests and shrub biogeocoenoses is defined as the zone of autoecological optimum for the H. alpina populations. Separately, the functional role of individuals that are in a state of deep rest is discussed. For this reason, they do not participate in population resumption processes. But they form a population reserve, important for restoring the optimal population structure at critical moments in their lives.


Dubyna D.V., Ennan A.A., Dziuba T.P., Vakarenko L.P., Kiriushkyna H.M., Shykhaleeva H.M.

Syntaxonomy of ruderal vegetation of the Kuyalnyk Liman

Abstract

Dubyna D.V., Ennan A.A., Dziuba T.P., Vakarenko L.P., Kiriushkyna H.M., Shykhaleeva H.M. (2018). Syntaxonomy of ruderal vegetation of the Kuyalnyk Liman. Chornomors’k. bot. z., 14 (3): 240–268. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.143/4

 

The present state of ruderal vegetation in the valley of the Kuyalnyk Liman is clarified, and its phytocenotic diversity is established. The largest syntaxonomic riches has the class Stellarieteamediae (13 associations, 7 alliances and 3 orders). Artemisietea vulgaris has 10 associations, 4 alliances and 2 orders and Polygono-Poetea annuae – 1 association, 1 alliance and 1 order only. The new association Amarantho blitoidis-Tribuletum terrestris are described. Agropyretum repentis, Hordeetum murini, Melilotetum albo-officinalis,Chamaeplietum officinalis, Lactucetum tataricae, Anisantho-Artemisietum austriacae, Polygonetum arenastri are most widespread associations on the investigated area. These associations are quite characteristic for the whole of Western and Eastern Europe, including Ukraine, but thermophile communities Bromo squarrosi-Sonchetum oleracei, Lactucetum tataricae, Anisantho-Artemisietum austriacae, Calamagrostietum epigei, Amarantho blitoidis-Tribuletum terrestris and Cynodontetum dactyli are present here. It is observed the increase in area and the number of ruderal communities of thermophilic annuals, due to the catastrophic reduction in recent years a water surface. Ruderal vegetation of the region is formed by synanthropic phytocoenoses and genetically previous formations of natural vegetation.There is a significant proportion of aboriginal species (up to 55 %) in floristic composition of ruderal communities. It indicates the possibility of renaturalization of natural vegetation, while reducing anthropic pressure.  The wide distribution and diversity of ruderal vegetation, and its high degree adventization, testify to the threatening ecological situation in the region and a significant level of anthropic transformation of natural communities. Optimization and restoration of semi-natural and anthropic ecosystems of the Liman are necessary. The creation of the Kuyalnytskyi National Natural Park is the only solution of this problem.


Gromakova A.B.

New records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Eastern Ukraine

Abstract

Gromakova A.B. (2018). New records of lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Eastern Ukraine. Chornomors’k. bot. z., 14 (3): 269–278. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.143/5

 

Five species of lichens and thirteen lichenicolous fungi are reported from the Eastern Ukraine. All species of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi were identified during studies conducted in the territory of the Kharkiv and Donetsk regions in 2012–2018, as well as during revision of materials from herbaria CWU and KHER. Calicium pinastri is a new for the plain part of Ukraine. It lignicolous species characterized by thin inconspicuous thallus, black stalked apothecia with brown hypothecium and 1-septate ellipsoid brown ascospore. Ten species of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi are new for the Left-Bank part of Ukraine. There are Clypeococcum hypocenomycis, Didymellopsis perigena, D. pulposi, Erythricium aurantiacum, Flavoplaca austrocitrina, Lichenochora hypanica, L. weillii, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Psorotichia montinii, Pyrenidium actinellum. Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Placopyrenium trachyticum and Scytinium tenuissimum are reported for the first time for the Left-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. Athelia arachnoidea, Cercidospora macrospora, Codonmyces lecanorae and Lichenostigma elongatum are first time reported to Kharkiv region. The lichenicolous fungus Lichenochora hypanica characterized by black globous immersed pseudothecia up to 150 mkm diam., 2-4-spored asci and 1-septate hyaline narrowly ellipsoid ascospore. This is the first report of L. hypanica outside of a type locality. It specimen was found on thallus of Endocarpon pusillum which is the new host species. The localities in Ukraine, ecology and distribution data for the new records are provided. The Ukrainian descriptions of Calicium pinastri and Lichenochora hypanica are given. Currently, there are 17 species of lichenicolous species was reported in Kharkiv region.


Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Darmostuk V.V., Moysiyenko I.I., Davydov O.V. 

The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Berezan Island with notes on its floristic and landscape diversity

Abstract

Khodosovtsev A.Ye., Darmostuk V.V., Moysiyenko I.I., Davydov O.V. (2018).The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Berezan Island with notes on its floristic and landscape diversity. Chornomors`k. bot. z., 14 (3): 279–290. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.143/6

 

Forty three species of the lichens and five species of the lichenicolous fungi were found on the Berezan Island (Mykolaiv region, Ukraine). Lecania leprosa and Myriolecis bandolensis are the first time reported for Ukraine. Firstly, L. leprosa was found after diagnosis publish. M. bandolensis was distributed in Western Mediterranea, but the first time collected on Black Sea coast. The location of ephemeral lichen Epiphloea byssina is the second in steppe zone of Ukraine. It forms black crust on the cliff edges. In Ukraine, the island is a northern habitat for Collemopsidium halodytes that forms black zone in lower geolittoral zone. The lichens Athallia skii, Collemopsidium halodytes, Flavoplaca austrocitrina, F. limonia, Lecania inundata, Verrucula biatorinaria, Staurothele frustulenta and lichenicolous fungus Lichenochora caloplacae are new to Mykolaiv region. The limestone outcrops in geolittoral zone, branches of the shrubs (Kochia prostrata, Ephedra distachya) and soil in abrasion places are natural substrates for lichens. There are 50 % of species diversity here. The archeological artefacts (e.g. limestone walls, memorial stones), concrete builds are main substrates for lichens in island. Preliminary list of the vascular plants is 45 species from 40 genera, 20 familia and 2 division. The steppe species on the cliff edges are nature vegetation. Agropyron pectinatum, Festuca valesiaca (rare), Achillea setacea, Allium guttatum, Artemisia austriaca, Eryngium campestre, Salvia nemorosa, Poa bulbosa were dominate grass species on the island. Ephedra distachya is a species from Mykolaiv Red Data List. The illustrations of the island landscapes, lichens and vascular plants are given in the paper.


Boiko M.F. 

Putredophytes in the bryoflora of Ukraine

Abstract

Boiko M.F. (2018). Putredophytes in the bryoflora of Ukraine. Chornomors`k. bot. z., 14 (3): 291–300. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.143/7

 

A large number of bryophyte species grow on certain substrates as rotten remnants of plants, animals and fungi. In the bryoflore of Ukraine, 134 such species were previously detected – out of them 77 species of Bryophyta and 57 of Marchantiophyta, representing 15,8  % of the species composition. However, this substrate group is not typified, does not have a short, single–word name, which would characterize the features of these species. It is proposed to name it putredophytes (from the latin pútredo – rotting, quasi lignum putridum – rotten wood). Putredophytes are not epixiles, as epixiles grow on the bare wood of trunks, branches and stumps of the trees until these substrates  start decomposing and the decay processes become well visible. Putredophytes habitats are not only rotten wood of different stages of rotting but also decayed remains of herbaceous plants, rotten forest floor, decomposed remains of fungi, lichens, other mosses, animal remains and excrements, decomposed objects of  human activity at various stages of decay (for example, thrown shoes, clothes, etc.). Among the bryoputredophytes, five groups are distinguished in relation to the putredosubstrates and to other types of substrates, on which these types of mosses are located: group I – euputrédophytes (greek eu – good, well + putredophytes) – 17 species of putredobryoflora; group II – subputredophytes (latin sub – + putredophytes) – 25 species; group III – mesoputredophytes (greek mesos – medium + putredophytes) – 41 species; group IV – oligoputredophytes (greek ολίγος – a little + putredophytes) – 30 species); group V – pauloputredophytes (latin paulo – a little bit, little, slightly + putredophytes) – 21 species.