ЧОРНОМОРСЬКИЙ БОТАНIЧНИЙ ЖУРНАЛ • ЧЕРНОМОРСКИЙ БОТАНИЧЕСКИЙ ЖУРНАЛ • CHORNOMORSKI BOTANICAL JOURNAL

Vynokurov D.S.

Autogenetic changes of vegetation in the Ingul River Valley

Abstract

Vynokurov D.S. (2018). Autogenetic changes of vegetation in the Ingul River Valley. Chornomors’k. bot. z., 14 (2): 108–123. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.142/1

 

Autogenetic changes of vegetation in the Ingul River Valley have been investigated. We located 12 transverse ecological gradients among different climatic conditions. We analyzed features of the natural dynamics of vegetation in the Ingul River Valley based on its serial development. We highlight 8 series of vegetation which are combined into 3 groups based on the type of humidification conditions – xerosere, mesosere and hydrosere. The first one is the most widespread in the Ingul River Valley, its communities occupy 80% of the total area. In this group four pioneer stages were detected: on carbonates in the downstream of the river (lithosere), on silicates in the middle part of the river (lithosere), on sands (psammosere) and on loesses (xerogeosere). Each of them can be considered as a separate alliance of vegetation – Potentillo arenariae-Linion czerniaevii (vegetation on limestone outcrops), Poo bulbosae-Stipion graniticolae (vegetation on granitic outcrops), Festucion beckeri (psammophitic vegetation), Tanaceto millefolii-Galatellion villosae (true steppe vegetation). Mesosere communities have less distribution (not more than 5% of total area). Two initial stages were detected: alluvial mesosere and hygrolithosere. The first one combines alluvial shrub vegetation of the Salicetea purpureae class, that are common on the upper part of the river. The second one includes chasmophytic vegetation on the granitic outcrops of the Ukrainian crystal shield. Communities of hydrarch changes (hydrosere) are common along the riversides. These coenoses allocate 15% of the total area. They are represented by eutrophic hydrosere and halosere. Pioneer stage of the eutrophic hydrosere is a true aquatic vegetation of  Lemnetea and Potametea classes. Halosere is represented by two pioneer stages – communities of Salicornietum prostratae and Crypsietum aculeatae.


Mykhailetska I.V.

A study of the Cedrus libani on the south of Ukraine

Abstract

Mykhailetska I.V. (2018). A study of the Cedrus libani on the south of UkraineChornomors’k. bot. z., 14 (2): 124–129. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.142/2

 

The characteristics of development and reproduction of Cedrus libani A. Rich are given when cultivating in the southern steppe region of Ukraine. The distribution of the species on the territory of the Kherson region is analyzed and the taxation indices of individuals C. libani are shown at different growing sites (Nova Kakhovka, Tavriysk, Chulakivka, Chaplynka, Askania-Nova). Peculiarities of the development and living conditions of plants that grow in the Askania-Nova arboretum and in Chaplynka square are characterized. For the latter, the terms for the passage of generative phases, the duration of the megastrobes formation are established. Morphometric indices of mature cones and seeds are given. The length of a cone is 8,19 ± 0,1 cm, the width is 4,54 ± 0,04 sm, the mass is 68,86 ± 2,49 g. The fertile cone is formed by 80,14 ± 2,55 scales, or 45% of their total number. The length of seeds with a wing is 2,08 ± 0,4 cm, the width – 1,8 ± 0,02 cm, the weight of 100 seeds – 10,59 ± 0,7 g. It has been determined that periodicity of cones’ formation is 3 years, abundance of cone-bearing is 2–4 marks. The cones ripen for the third year after pollination. Their damage was not detected by pests and diseases. The average potential seed productivity of the cones is 167,14 ± 6,96 seeds, of which 52,14 ± 7,1, or 32%, are fulfilled. Seeds freshly harvested germinate without a period of rest for 5–10 days. Laboratory germination of seeds at room temperature is 60%, germination energy is 40%. During the autumn sowing of seeds in the open ground, shoots appeared in April, germination reached 20%. Preservation of seedlings until the end of the first year of vegetation is 10%.


Shevchyk V.L., Solomakha I.V., Solomakha V.A.

Syntaxonomy of heliophylous ephemeroids and winter ephemera plant groups of seasonal (early spring) vegetation on the Dnipro Forest-Steppe (Ukraine)

Abstract

Shevchyk V.L., Solomakha I.V., Solomakha V.A. (2018). Syntaxonomy of heliophylous ephemeroids and winter ephemera plant groups of seasonal (early spring) vegetation on the Dnipro Forest-Steppe (Ukraine). Chornomors’k. bot. z., 14 (2): 130–140. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.142/3

 

During seasonal explorations (early spring) of the Dnipro Forest-Steppe vegetation in the outskirs of Kaniv city plant communities (34 releves) which names are absent in the list of syntaxa of Ukrainian vegetation have been identified. They are mostly secondary or semi-natural plant groups of spring perennials, ephemera and ephemeroids with winter type germination on light condensed substrates, drying out in summer. The upper stratums of the soil profile are characterized by the rapid mineralization of organic matter after the winter period with wet soil. These phytocoenoses are most often found as the spots, streaks along paths and roads, on antropogenic elements of relief. According to the presence of common diagnostic species – Medicago lupulina, Erodium cicutarium, Plantago lanceolata, Poa bulbosa, Lolium perenne, the investigated plant groups should belong to the class Poetea bulbosae which nominally is given in “The Review of Ukrainian vegetation”. Diagnostic value is increased due to growth in investigated groups as well Buglossoides czernjajevii, Valerianella locusta, Lamium amplexicaule, Arabidopsis thaliana, Veronica hederifolia, V. persica, V. verna, Erophila verna, Anisantha tectorum, Draba nemorosa, Ranunculus illyricusetc. Most of these species in Ukrainian flora are indicated as diagnostic for classes: Koelerio-Corynephoreteacanescentis, Sedo-Scleranthetea, Festuco-Brometea. Such interpretation is a consequence of their frequent presence in this type phytocoenoses but does not correspond to the biomorpho-phenotypic type status of the main aedificators of these classes groups. The main elements for Koelerio-Corynephoretea canescentis are euxerophilous cereals summer-vegetation hemicryptophytes, for Sedo-Scleranthetea – summer-vegetation succulent hamephytes and hemicryptophytes, for Festuco-Brometea – summer-vegetation megatrophic xerophytes with wide biomorphological spectrum. As for the discussed group of plants, it should be noted that they occur in groups of these classes and can form small area phytocoenoses with predominance and determining influence. Identification of these plant groups with the participation of heliophilic ephemeroids and winter ephemera promotes to describe the new association Anisantho tectorii-Poetum bulbosae ass. nova with three sub-associations (plantaginetosum, buglossoidetosum, typicum) included to the new alliance Anisantho tectorii-Poeion bulbosae all. nova from the order Poetalia bulbosae and class Poetea bulbosae including the Mediterranean plant groups of seasonal perennials and ephemera. The part of investigated plant groups are attributed to association Veronico dillenii-Secalietum sylvestris (Koelerion glaucae, order Festucetalia vaginatae) of the class Koelerio-Corynephoretea canescentis.


Dmytruk Yu.G.

Features of the scrubland in the southern steppe subzone of the Tiligulo-Bug interfluves

Abstract

Dmytruk Yu.G.(2018). Features of the scrubland in the southern steppe subzone of the Tiligulo-Bug interfluves. Chornomors’k. bot. z., 14 (2): 141–151. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.142/4

 

The species composition and ecological state of the natural shrubland of the North-Western Black Sea Region is analyzed by the example of the territory of the south-steppe subzone of the Tiligul-Bug interfluves. The main floristic features of natural-shrub vegetation are highlighted in various typical habitats inherent in the dry steppe. It describes the main ecological and biotopical conditions of the shrubs vegetation growth within the study area. Almost all the natural vegetation of the remaining parts of the steppe landscape is preserved and investigated in the ravine biotopes, the locally ground, microclimatic and orographic specifics of which are decisive in terms of the formation and existence of their phytocoenoses. It is established that in the conditions of the transformed territory, natural shrub phytogroups combine components of different origins (steppe natives, introducents, invasive and adventitious species) that are almost identical in the biotopical relation to the primary-steppe shrubs. Their ecological, species and biotopical (gully-ravine) unification is visible in geobotanically and geographically different sub-zones of the steppe, differing only in terms of vegetation. Accordingly, the modern composition and structure of the shrub groups in the steppe-field territory does not show the expected tendency to «impoverish» and xerophytisation in the gradient of the southern vector. Also, under the condition of a sharp drop in marginal loading during the last 15 years, the natural shrub vegetation of the remaining parts of the steppe-balk terrain shows an accentuated tendency to expand the location of habitats. First and foremost, the expansion of squares of shrubbery is due to more moisturized microbodies with broken or turf worn down. At the same time, the species composition of shrub groups in the gullies of the geobotanically different areas remains practically unchanged, and only in talvegah forms mixed wood-shrub complexes based on local and invasive species.


Panchenko S.M., Ivanets V.Yu.

Horizontal structure of the rare plant populations and elementary methods of its analysis

Abstract

Panchenko S.M., Ivanets V.Yu. (2018). Horizontal structure of the rare plant populations and elementary methods of its analysis. Chornomorsk. bot. z.14 (2): 152–161. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.142/5

 

The scheme of placing plants in the population are the basis for the horizontal structure analysis. The shown schemes illustrate the horizontal structure of Sempervivum globifera, Pulsatilla pratensis, Jovibarba globifera and Huperzia selago populations based on the conducted studies in 2007-2014 years. The intracenotic mosaic of the habitats was estimated. The influence of the phytocenotic mosaic elements and microrelief specifics on the plants inside their populations were analyzed. Such data enabled to understand more deeply some ecological characteristic of the studied sites. Moreover, it was shown that the vertical profiles of the trees stand in the area of 5×50 m or more are the most appropriate to illustrate ecotonic locations in the linear populations as the edges. In the studied sites with Jovibarba globifera, Pulsatilla pratensis and Sempervivum ruthenicum the ecological discomfort ratio were evaluated that defined the confinement of these species to the certain type of tree stands relief and density. As a result of studying shrub-herbaceous and moss -lichen layers composition and structure was shown the reason of uneven plants placing in the populations. On the examples of Jovibarba globifera and Huperzia selago plants were defined the confinement of the individuals to those or other elements of the horizontal phytocoenoses structure. The most commonly J. globifera plants were found on the bedding and shown that it mostly avoided areas where the mosses are dominating. In case of H. selago plants, the dynamics of interaction with mosses over 6 years were also analyzed. It was shown that new H. selago plants appear in such points where the mosses curtain thickness is not exceed 3–5 cm high. The young plants are often withered in places where the moss layer is higher than 4 cm. Adult H. selago plants are able to grow successfully at the height of the moss cover above 5–6 cm beyond the domination of Dicranum polysetum and Pleurozium schreberi.


Berezovska V.Yu.

Algae reservoirs of the national value botanical reserve «Lisnykу»

Abstract

Berezovska V.Yu. (2018). Algae reservoirs of the national value botanical reserve «Lisnykу» (Holosiivskyi National Nature Park).Chornomors’k. bot. z., 14 (2): 162–172. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.142/6

 

The first results of the comprehensive floristic study of freshwater algae in the National botanical reserve «Lisnyki» (Holosiivskyi National Nature Park, Ukraine) are presented. The 91 species (93 infraspecies taxa) from 8 phyla, 11 classes, 27 orders, 41 families and 66 genera, were found in marshy reservoirs and Shaparnya Lake. The largest part of the species list is formed by representatives of Bacillariophyta (48,39%), Chlorophyta (20,43%), and Сharophyta (11,82%). The high abundence in swampy water bodies was achieved by such species as Aulacoseira italica, Euglena granulata, Euglenaformis proxima, Fragilarioforma virescens, and in Lake Shaparnya – by Acutodesmus acutiformis, Brachysira microcephala, Coelastrum microporum, Navicula rhynchotella. The dominant and rare species were recordered. Among them, Mallomonas striata is recorded for Ukraine at the second time. Brachysira microcephala, Cymbella affiniformis, Encyonopsis microcephala, Meridion constrictum, and Platessa conspicua were found in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine at the second time. Cosmarium turpinii var. podolicum is the rare species in the whole region. Chara contraria and Heteronema acus are included in the Red List of Kyiv region. The high conservation value of the territory can be emphesized by the presence of valuable charophyte communities. As an example, Nitellopsis obtusa is included in the Red Data Book of Ukraine, while Lychnothamnus barbatus is a rare species in the world flora. Further monitoring and algal diversity investigations of the National botanical reserve «Lisnyki» are expedient.


Darmostuk V.V. 

The new records of lichenicolous fungi from Ukrainian Carpathians

Abstract

Darmostuk V.V. (2018). The new records of lichenicolous fungi from Ukrainian Carpathians. Chornomors`k. bot. z., 14 (2): 173–179. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.142/7

 

Three species of lichenicolous fungi are for first time reported in Ukraine from Chornohora Mountain Range. These are Arthonia subvarians, Didymocyrtis melanelixiae and Polycoccum umbilicariae. A. subvarians is the poorly known European species, characterized by slightly convex arthonioid ascomata, green-brown epithecium, hyaline to olive hymenium, K+ wine-red, clavate (4–)8-spored bitunicate asci and hyaline 1-septate soleiform ascospore. This species, together with Cercidospora epipolytropa and Intralichen baccisporus, grows on apothecia of Lecanora polytropa and produces dark necrotic spots on host. The taxonomic discussion and comparison with A. apotheciorum are provided. Didymocyrtis melanelixiae is characterized by immersed black globose conidiomata, ampuliform conidiogenous cells and broadly ellipsoid аseptate 1–2-guttulate hyaline conidia. It grows on thallus of Platismatia glauca together with Lichenoconium erodens and produces dark necrotic spots with the black edge. Polycoccum umbilicariae is the rarely reported species, characterized by black immersed to semi-immersed globous ascomata, hymenium without hamathecial filaments, clavate (4–)8-spored fisitunicate asci and olive to dark-brown ellipsoid (0–)1-septate smooth-walled ascospore. It growth on thallus of Umbilicaria cylindrica and produces decolorized spots with destroyed upper cortex. U. cylindrica is a new host species for Polycoccum umbilicariae. The discussion about current taxonomic position and comparison with the specimens of same species growing on another hosts are presented. Description, list of host lichens species, data about distribution in Ukraine and examined specimens are provided for each species.


Popovych S.YU., Ustymenko P.M. 

Synphytosociological analysis of the protected rare dendrophytocoenofond in broad-leaved forest zone of Ukraine

Abstract

Popovych S.Yu., Ustymenko P.M. (2018). Synphytosociological analysis of the protected rare dendrophytocoenofond in broad-leaved forest zone of UkraineChornomors`k. bot. z., 14 (2): 180-194. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.142/8

 

The article focuses on the relevance and current state of the dendrosozological direction development in synphytosozological research. It based on a significant scientific author's work, above all, a number of monographic editions about the rare dendrodiversity of the Natural Reserve Fund within Forest-Steppe, Steppe and Polissya of Ukraine. Therefore, this publication presents the results of research for the Broadleaf Forests zone of Ukraine. In the article, authors described the essence of the methodology of inventory research of phytocenotic dendrodiversity. The determination of synphytososological categories, classes and indices were carried out using the method of integral synphytososological evaluation in rare dendrophytocenoses. The obtained results of synphytosozological analysis indicate that the protected rare dendrophytocenofond of the Broad Leaved Forests zone of Ukraine is represented by four types of vegetation: marsh (forest and shrubland swamps), forest (deciduous and coniferous forests), shrub and steppe (shrub steppes). These types of vegetation cover 15 formations, 45 subformations and 128 associations. Syntaxonomically the most diversified formation is Querceta roboris (38 associations). The majority of dendrosozophytocenoses are located in the extreme northeastern boundaries of distribution with a rare type of association. The vast majority of associations belong to the Berne Convention, just over half of them are listed in the current official publication of the Green Data Book of Ukraine, and only 16 % have been taken to the Regional Green Data Book of the Western regions of Ukraine. The core of rare associations has predominantly average outcomes of the outphytosozological categories (second), classes (II) and indices (10.5). Majority of the rare syntaxons are tied to nature reserves and national natural parks, but 20 associations are still not reserved, probably 5 of them have already disappeared from the research area.


Dubyna D.V., Chusova O.O., Kucher O.O.

Knight of science, outstanding botanist Yakov Petrovich Didukh – 70!

   Dubyna D.V., Chusova O.O., Kucher O.O. Knight of science, outstanding botanist Yakov Petrovich Didukh – 70!. Chornomors`k. bot. z., 14 (2): 195-197. doi: 10.14255/2308-9628/18.142/9

 

 

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